The entry of African Americans into traditional medicine in the United States is one of the least-known chapters in history. Their involvement in the medical care of the United States Colored Troops during the American Civil War is also little known. This book provides the first documentation of medical school graduation for a number of African American physicians prior to the Civil War and discusses the entry of African Americans into medical practice. Also told for the first time are the stories of twelve physicians who served with the Union Army during the Civil War. Nine men were appointed acting assistant surgeons, one was commissioned assistant surgeon, and two were commissioned surgeons. Of this group, Alexander Thomas Augusta, MD, was the first African American to be commissioned as a major in the Union Army. 2006 paperback, 52 pages.